Consumer Disputes Guide

Are you a consumer? Have you bought a faulty product? Have you obtained a refund, replacement or repair or is the seller, retailer or manufacturer refusing to give you a refund, replacement or repair the product?

In this guide, we take you through the process of resolving a dispute after being sold a faulty product. Our Consumer rights solicitors can assist you with obtaining a refund, repair or replacement of the goods that you have bought from a supplier, manufacturer or retailer as long as you can prove they are at fault.  ​This guide covers

  • Your rights under the Consumer Rights Act 2015

  • Teaches you how to approach the seller, retailer or manufacturer for a refund

  • How to go through the company's complaints process

  • How to prepare a Letter Before Action on a product that is not of satisfactory quality or fit for purpose

  • How to issue a faulty goods claim in the Small Claims Court

  • How to enforce a judgment obtained from the court​

The Consumer Rights Act 2015 (CRA 2015)

The Consumer Rights Act defines your rights and provides a standard that all products sold must adhere to. The Act provides that the goods sold must be:

  • Of Satisfactory quality – The goods should be free of fault or any defects and not be damaged when received or delivered.

  • Fit for purpose – The goods should be suitable for the purpose for which they were made or supplied and last a reasonable period of time.

  • As described – This means that he goods must match the description given to you and conform to any standards that you were given prior to purchase.

What are my rights as a consumer?

If you are a consumer who has recently purchased a product from a business that develops a fault, the CRA 2015 gives you the right to get a replacement, free repair or full refund depending on when the fault happened and your date of purchase of the product.

The Act gives you the right to return a faulty item for a full refund within the first 30 days of purchase. After the first 30 days (but within the first six months of purchase ) you can still return the item, but you must give the retailer the opportunity to replace or repair the fault.

Can I issue proceedings if the product that I bought is defective?

No – you cannot issue proceedings immediately if the product that you bought is defective.

The law provides that a party who has received a defective good must first inform the seller, retailer or manufacturer and try to settle the matter before issuing legal proceedings. The Civil Procedure Rules which govern the issue and conduct of legal proceedings provides that the parties to a dispute must act reasonably and comply with the Civil Procedure Rules (CPR) prior to issuing legal proceedings. The CPR sets out how a dispute should be dealt with before a party issues legal proceedings.

There is a practice direction on pre-action conduct by parties with a dispute. The Practice Direction provides a framework of the steps that both parties should take before commencement of legal proceedings. The court will expect both parties to have complied with the Pre-action protocol before the issue of legal proceedings and may penalise a party who fails to comply with the Pre-action Protocol.

The Rules stipulate that the parties involved in the dispute must communicate and exchange documentary information to:

  • understand each other’s position.

  • decide on how to proceed.

  • try to settle the issues without court proceedings.

  • consider the various Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) methods eg mediation, conciliation, arbitration, adjudication before issuing legal proceedings.

It is therefore essential that you keep copies of all correspondence, telephone discussions, text messages, emails and other documentation between you and the seller, retailer and manufacturer as this will assist you in proving that there was a contract and proving breach of the contract.

Steps that you must take

You must ensure that you use all of the complaint processes available to you before issuing court proceedings. You should exhaust all of the available complaint avenues open to you before your issue legal proceedings. At the first sign of a problem with a product tell the seller or supplier as soon as possible. Inform them of your dissatisfaction with the goods, the reason for your dissatisfaction with the goods and whether you wish to return and reject the item for a full refund or you want a replacement or a repair.

Your first step should therefore be to:

Lodge a Complaint with the seller, retailer, manufacturer first: It is essential that the company or individual is fully aware of your dissatisfaction and the outcome that you seek eg a refund, replacement or repair of the goods.

Early reporting gives the seller and supplier the chance to resolve the matter informally and also ensures that you can prove that you raised your concerns with the seller or supplier at the earliest available opportunity.

If you are not happy with the retailer or supplier’s response you should ask for a copy of their complaints procedure and send a complaint letter to the retailer or whoever is named in the complaints policy.

What should I put in my complaint letter?

You should put in:

  • the date and place where you bought the product

  • a copy of your receipt, credit or debit card statement – anything that shows that you bought the product ie proof of purchase)

  • Photographs or other evidence of the defect

  • When you reported the defect, the telephone number of the office to which you reported the defence, the name of the person you spoke to and any reference you were given

  • A reasonable timeframe for them to investigate and respond to your complaint.

If you receive a response asking for further information eg additional details, evidence or even the return of the product for inspection (ensure tracked delivery or receipt).you should try to comply with the request as far as possible. If you are asked to return the product for inspection do send it by recorded post, courier or drop off at any drop off point operated or used by the retailer.

Handling settlement proposals

Be flexible and open to compromise. If you are offered a repair, replacement or refund consider the offer. A partial refund, repair or replacement may be more cost-effective for you in the long run. Court proceedings are costly and should be avoided if at all possible.

If you are not happy with the response or offer from the retailer, supplier or manufacturer you may wish to make a complaint to the Ombudsman at

If the supplier has an independent ombudsman overseeing their particular industry, they will probably inform you of this and suggest you complain to their ombudsman. If they don’t you may wish to search for an ombudsman at

An alternative approach may be to ask for a refund of the money that you sent under a Section 75 Claim procedure. This is a remedy under the Consumer Credit Acts. However, this only applies if you made the purchase with a credit card. In this case you will have to raise a complaint with your credit card issuer who may be able to refund you the money that you paid under the Section 75 claim procedure. The credit card company will generally ask for a return of the product which you should send by recorded delivery, courier or other “safe” method.

If you are unable to resolve the defective product dispute you may wish to prepare a Letter Before Action (aka Letter of Claim) and serve it on the seller, supplier or manufacturer. The Letter Before Action will give the seller, supplier o